I know folks here have good intentions, but there's some misinformation in some of the preceding posts.
Not trying to be a wisea$$, but I've been in electronics since the Navy trained me as an ET in 64, I'm a licensed electrician (though I sure wouldn't want to live in a house I wired. :c(
Okay. First of all batteries. If you are using Pb (lead acid), for longevity you don't want to discharge below 50%, best life is to stay above 80%, but that's unrealistic, so we'll use 50%. If you have a fairly new 12 volt 100 amp hour battery, discharging by 1/2 gives you 600 watts of power (the formula is P=IE, where P is power in watts, I is current in amps, and E is voltage) - in this example you can draw 5 amps for 10 hours or 2.5 amps for 20 hours.
The above is simplistic and ignores lots of variables such as temperature, and the fact that a given battery will deliver power more efficiently at lower discharge rates, etc.
MPPT chargers are better in many applications, but not for the reasons stated. Consider that a PV panel is more a constant current device. EOC (voltage open circuit) means little when you connect a battery to it, as the battery will clamp the PV panel voltage to the battery voltage. Say the panel open circuit voltage is 20 volts with 10 amps (200 watt panel). If you use a PWM (pulse width modulating) or other simple switching panel, to a battery that has discharged to 10 volts (to keep the math simple), the panel voltage out will drop to 10 volts and the current will stay roughly at 10 amps, so now we have lost half the panel's output charging potential. The beauty of MPPT (maximum power point tracking) charge controllers is that they use a DC to DC switching circuit to "trade" the panel's higher voltage for more output current than the panel alone can provide. Typical boost will be as much as 30% more power (amps) available to charge the battery.
And again, a rule of thumb is 1 watt of solar panel for each amp hour of battery capacity. In my RV I have 400 watts of PV panels and 450 amp hours of battery capacity in two banks. I might use 80 amp hours evening and overnight, and with a reasonably sunny day that will be replaced by 10:30 to 12:00. I'll see 25 amps up to 30 max (the limit of my MPPT charge controller).
Note that my panels are flat on the roof (with air space) and I don't go up there to tilt them directly towards the sun - that costs me something like 17% efficiency, but adding a panel or two is easier than worrying about which way the panels face. For a home, of course, the panels want to be tilted according to your latitude. Some even have their panels track the sun's arc - - but again, often cheaper just to add panels and keep it simple.
I didn't speak to PWM or (pulse width modulating) charge controllers. They control the charging current by electronically switching the output on and off rapidly - the on time will determine the rate of charge so that the apparent charge rate can be tapered off to be kinder to the batteries (for lack of a better description) instead of the simple on and off of a simple switching controller.
best,
bumper