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2022 To 2026 Technician Class Ham Radio License Question Pool




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Here ya go guys, the complete question pool to study to get your Technician license, just the questions and the correct answers, I redacted all the unnecessary crap.
2022-2026 Technician Class

FCC Element 2 Question Pool

Effective 7/01/2022 – 6/30/2026





Which of the following is part of the Basis and Purpose of the Amateur Radio Service?

Advancing skills in the technical and communication phases of the radio art



Which agency regulates and enforces the rules for the Amateur Radio Service in the United States?

The FCC



What do the FCC rules state regarding the use of a phonetic alphabet for station identification in the Amateur Radio Service?

It is encouraged



How many operator/primary station license grants may be held by any one person?

One



What proves that the FCC has issued an operator/primary license grant?

The license appears in the FCC ULS database



What is the FCC Part 97 definition of a beacon?

An amateur station transmitting communications for the purposes of observing propagation or related experimental activities



What is the FCC Part 97 definition of a space station?

An amateur station located more than 50 km above Earth's surface



Which of the following entities recommends transmit/receive channels and other parameters for auxiliary and repeater stations?

Volunteer Frequency Coordinator recognized by local amateurs



T1A09 (C) [97.3(a)(22)]

Who selects a Frequency Coordinator?

Amateur operators in a local or regional area whose stations are eligible to be repeater or auxiliary stations



What is the Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES)?

A. A radio service using amateur frequencies for emergency management or civil defense communications

B. A radio service using amateur stations for emergency management or civil defense communications

C. An emergency service using amateur operators certified by a civil defense organization as being enrolled in that organization

D. All these choices are correct





When is willful interference to other amateur radio stations permitted?

At no time





Which of the following frequency ranges are available for phone operation by Technician licensees?

28.300 MHz to 28.500 MHz



T1B02 (B) [97.301, 97.207(c)]

Which amateurs may contact the International Space Station (ISS) on VHF bands?

Any amateur holding a Technician class or higher license



Which frequency is in the 6 meter amateur band?

52.525 MHz



Which amateur band includes 146.52 MHz?

2 meters



How may amateurs use the 219 to 220 MHz segment of 1.25 meter band?

Fixed digital message forwarding systems only



On which HF bands does a Technician class operator have phone privileges?

10 meter band only



Which of the following VHF/UHF band segments are limited to CW only?

50.0 MHz to 50.1 MHz and 144.0 MHz to 144.1 MHz



How are US amateurs restricted in segments of bands where the Amateur Radio Service is secondary?

U.S. amateurs may find non-amateur stations in those segments, and must avoid interfering with them



Why should you not set your transmit frequency to be exactly at the edge of an amateur band or sub-band?

A. To allow for calibration error in the transmitter frequency display

B. So that modulation sidebands do not extend beyond the band edge

C. To allow for transmitter frequency drift

D. All these choices are correct



Where may SSB phone be used in amateur bands above 50 MHz?

In at least some segment of all these bands



What is the maximum peak envelope power output for Technician class operators in their HF band segments?

200 watts



Except for some specific restrictions, what is the maximum peak envelope power output for Technician class operators using frequencies above 30 MHz?

1500 watts









For which license classes are new licenses currently available from the FCC?

Technician, General, Amateur Extra



Who may select a desired call sign under the vanity call sign rules?

Any licensed amateur



What types of international communications are an FCC-licensed amateur radio station permitted to make?

Communications incidental to the purposes of the Amateur Radio Service and remarks of a personal character



What may happen if the FCC is unable to reach you by email?

Revocation of the station license or suspension of the operator license



Which of the following is a valid Technician class call sign format?

KF1XXX



From which of the following locations may an FCC-licensed amateur station transmit?

From any vessel or craft located in international waters and documented or registered in the United States



Which of the following can result in revocation of the station license or suspension of the operator license?

Failure to provide and maintain a correct email address with the FCC



What is the normal term for an FCC-issued amateur radio license?

Ten years



What is the grace period for renewal if an amateur license expires?

Two years



How soon after passing the examination for your first amateur radio license may you transmit on the amateur radio bands?

As soon as your operator/station license grant appears in the FCC’s license database



If your license has expired and is still within the allowable grace period, may you continue to transmit on the amateur radio bands?

No, you must wait until the license has been renewed





With which countries are FCC-licensed amateur radio stations prohibited from exchanging communications?

Any country whose administration has notified the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) that it objects to such communications



Under which of the following circumstances are one-way transmissions by an amateur station prohibited?

Broadcasting



When is it permissible to transmit messages encoded to obscure their meaning?

Only when transmitting control commands to space stations or radio control craft




Under what conditions is an amateur station authorized to transmit music using a phone emission?

When incidental to an authorized retransmission of manned spacecraft communications



When may amateur radio operators use their stations to notify other amateurs of the availability of equipment for sale or trade?

When selling amateur radio equipment and not on a regular basis



What, if any, are the restrictions concerning transmission of language that may be considered indecent or obscene?

Any such language is prohibited



What types of amateur stations can automatically retransmit the signals of other amateur stations?

Repeater, auxiliary, or space stations



In which of the following circumstances may the control operator of an amateur station receive compensation for operating that station?

When the communication is incidental to classroom instruction at an educational institution



When may amateur stations transmit information in support of broadcasting, program production, or news gathering, assuming no other means is available?

When such communications are directly related to the immediate safety of human life or protection of property



How does the FCC define broadcasting for the Amateur Radio Service?

Transmissions intended for reception by the general public



When may an amateur station transmit without identifying on the air?

When transmitting signals to control model craft





When may an amateur station transmit without a control operator?

Never



Who may be the control operator of a station communicating through an amateur satellite or space station?

Any amateur allowed to transmit on the satellite uplink frequency



Who must designate the station control operator?

The station licensee



What determines the transmitting frequency privileges of an amateur station?

The class of operator license held by the control operator



What is an amateur station’s control point?

The location at which the control operator function is performed



When, under normal circumstances, may a Technician class licensee be the control operator of a station operating in an Amateur Extra Class band segment?

At no time



When the control operator is not the station licensee, who is responsible for the proper operation of the station?

The control operator and the station licensee



Which of the following is an example of automatic control?

Repeater operation



Which of the following are required for remote control operation?

A. The control operator must be at the control point

B. A control operator is required at all times

C. The control operator must indirectly manipulate the controls

D. All these choices are correct



Which of the following is an example of remote control as defined in Part 97?

Operating the station over the internet



Who does the FCC presume to be the control operator of an amateur station, unless documentation to the contrary is in the station records?

The station licensee





When must the station and its records be available for FCC inspection?

At any time upon request by an FCC representative



How often must you identify with your FCC-assigned call sign when using tactical call signs such as “Race Headquarters”?

At the end of each communication and every ten minutes during a communication



When are you required to transmit your assigned call sign?

At least every 10 minutes during and at the end of a communication



What language may you use for identification when operating in a phone sub-band?

English



What method of call sign identification is required for a station transmitting phone signals?

Send the call sign using a CW or phone emission



T1F06 (D) [97.119(c)]

Which of the following self-assigned indicators are acceptable when using a phone transmission?

A. KL7CC stroke W3

B. KL7CC slant W3

C. KL7CC slash W3

D. All these choices are correct



Which of the following restrictions apply when a non-licensed person is allowed to speak to a foreign station using a station under the control of a licensed amateur operator?

The foreign station must be in a country with which the U.S. has a third party agreement



What is the definition of third party communications?

A message from a control operator to another amateur station control operator on behalf of another person



What type of amateur station simultaneously retransmits the signal of another amateur station on a different channel or channels?

Repeater station



Who is accountable if a repeater inadvertently retransmits communications that violate the FCC rules?

The control operator of the originating station



Which of the following is a requirement for the issuance of a club station license grant?

The club must have at least four members





What is a common repeater frequency offset in the 2 meter band?

Plus or minus 600 kHz



What is the national calling frequency for FM simplex operations in the 2 meter band?

146.520 MHz



What is a common repeater frequency offset in the 70 cm band?

Plus or minus 5 MHz



What is an appropriate way to call another station on a repeater if you know the other station's call sign?

Say the station's call sign, then identify with your call sign



How should you respond to a station calling CQ?

Transmit the other station’s call sign followed by your call sign



Which of the following is required when making on-the-air test transmissions?

Identify the transmitting station



What is meant by "repeater offset”?

The difference between a repeater’s transmit and receive frequencies



What is the meaning of the procedural signal “CQ”?

Calling any station



Which of the following indicates that a station is listening on a repeater and looking for a contact?

The station’s call sign followed by the word “monitoring”



What is a band plan, beyond the privileges established by the FCC?

A voluntary guideline for using different modes or activities within an amateur band



What term describes an amateur station that is transmitting and receiving on the same frequency?

Simplex






What should you do before calling CQ?

A. Listen first to be sure that no one else is using the frequency

B. Ask if the frequency is in use

C. Make sure you are authorized to use that frequency

D. All these choices are correct





How is a VHF/UHF transceiver’s “reverse” function used?

To listen on a repeater’s input frequency



What term describes the use of a sub-audible tone transmitted along with normal voice audio to open the squelch of a receiver?

CTCSS



Which of the following describes a linked repeater network?

A network of repeaters in which signals received by one repeater are transmitted by all the repeaters in the network



T2B04 (D)

Which of the following could be the reason you are unable to access a repeater whose output you can hear?

A. Improper transceiver offset

B. You are using the wrong CTCSS tone

C. You are using the wrong DCS code

D. All these choices are correct



What would cause your FM transmission audio to be distorted on voice peaks?

You are talking too loudly



What type of signaling uses pairs of audio tones?

DTMF



How can you join a digital repeater’s “talkgroup”?

Program your radio with the group’s ID or code



Which of the following applies when two stations transmitting on the same frequency interfere with each other?

The stations should negotiate continued use of the frequency



Why are simplex channels designated in the VHF/UHF band plans?

So stations within range of each other can communicate without tying up a repeater



Which Q signal indicates that you are receiving interference from other stations?

QRM



Which Q signal indicates that you are changing frequency?

QSY






What is the purpose of the color code used on DMR repeater systems?

Must match the repeater color code for access



What is the purpose of a squelch function?

Mute the receiver audio when a signal is not present





When do FCC rules NOT apply to the operation of an amateur station?

FCC rules always apply



Which of the following are typical duties of a Net Control Station?

Call the net to order and direct communications between stations checking in



What technique is used to ensure that voice messages containing unusual words are received correctly?

Spell the words using a standard phonetic alphabet



What is RACES?

An FCC part 97 amateur radio service for civil defense communications during national emergencies



What does the term “traffic” refer to in net operation?

Messages exchanged by net stations



What is the Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES)?

A group of licensed amateurs who have voluntarily registered their qualifications and equipment for communications duty in the public service



Which of the following is standard practice when you participate in a net?

Unless you are reporting an emergency, transmit only when directed by the net control station



Which of the following is a characteristic of good traffic handling?

Passing messages exactly as received



Are amateur station control operators ever permitted to operate outside the frequency privileges of their license class?

Yes, but only in situations involving the immediate safety of human life or protection of property



What information is contained in the preamble of a formal traffic message?

Information needed to track the message



What is meant by “check” in a radiogram header?

The number of words or word equivalents in the text portion of the message





Why do VHF signal strengths sometimes vary greatly when the antenna is moved only a few feet?

Multipath propagation cancels or reinforces signals








What is the effect of vegetation on UHF and microwave signals?

Absorption



What antenna polarization is normally used for long-distance CW and SSB contacts on the VHF and UHF bands?

Horizontal



What happens when antennas at opposite ends of a VHF or UHF line of sight radio link are not using the same polarization?

Received signal strength is reduced



When using a directional antenna, how might your station be able to communicate with a distant repeater if buildings or obstructions are blocking the direct line of sight path?

Try to find a path that reflects signals to the repeater



What is the meaning of the term “picket fencing”?

Rapid flutter on mobile signals due to multipath propagation



What weather condition might decrease range at microwave frequencies?

Precipitation



What is a likely cause of irregular fading of signals propagated by the ionosphere?

Random combining of signals arriving via different paths



Which of the following results from the fact that signals propagated by the ionosphere are elliptically polarized?

Either vertically or horizontally polarized antennas may be used for transmission or reception



What effect does multi-path propagation have on data transmissions?

Error rates are likely to increase



Which region of the atmosphere can refract or bend HF and VHF radio waves?

The ionosphere



What is the effect of fog and rain on signals in the 10 meter and 6 meter bands?

There is little effect





What is the relationship between the electric and magnetic fields of an electromagnetic wave?

They are at right angles



What property of a radio wave defines its polarization?

The orientation of the electric field



What are the two components of a radio wave?

Electric and magnetic fields






What is the velocity of a radio wave traveling through free space?

Speed of light



What is the relationship between wavelength and frequency?

Wavelength gets shorter as frequency increases





What is the formula for converting frequency to approximate wavelength in meters?

Wavelength in meters equals 300 divided by frequency in megahertz



In addition to frequency, which of the following is used to identify amateur radio bands?

The approximate wavelength in meters



What frequency range is referred to as VHF?

30 MHz to 300 MHz



What frequency range is referred to as UHF?

300 to 3000 MHz



What frequency range is referred to as HF?

3 to 30 MHz



What is the approximate velocity of a radio wave in free space?

300,000,000 meters per second





Why are simplex UHF signals rarely heard beyond their radio horizon?

UHF signals are usually not propagated by the ionosphere



What is a characteristic of HF communication compared with communications on VHF and higher frequencies?

Long-distance ionospheric propagation is far more common on HF



What is a characteristic of VHF signals received via auroral backscatter?

They are distorted and signal strength varies considerably



Which of the following types of propagation is most commonly associated with occasional strong signals on the 10, 6, and 2 meter bands from beyond the radio horizon?

Sporadic E



Which of the following effects may allow radio signals to travel beyond obstructions between the transmitting and receiving stations?

Knife-edge diffraction



What type of propagation is responsible for allowing over-the-horizon VHF and UHF communications to ranges of approximately 300 miles on a regular basis?

Tropospheric ducting



What band is best suited for communicating via meteor scatter?

6 meters



What causes tropospheric ducting?

Temperature inversions in the atmosphere



What is generally the best time for long-distance 10 meter band propagation via the F region?

From dawn to shortly after sunset during periods of high sunspot activity



Which of the following bands may provide long-distance communications via the ionosphere’s F region during the peak of the sunspot cycle?

6 and 10 meters



Why is the radio horizon for VHF and UHF signals more distant than the visual horizon?

The atmosphere refracts radio waves slightly





Which of the following is an appropriate power supply rating for a typical 50 watt output mobile FM transceiver?

13.8 volts at 12 amperes



Which of the following should be considered when selecting an accessory SWR meter?

The frequency and power level at which the measurements will be made



Why are short, heavy-gauge wires used for a transceiver’s DC power connection?

To minimize voltage drop when transmitting



How are the transceiver audio input and output connected in a station configured to operate using FT8?

To the audio input and output of a computer running WSJT-X software



Where should an RF power meter be installed?

In the feed line, between the transmitter and antenna



What signals are used in a computer-radio interface for digital mode operation?

Receive audio, transmit audio, and transmitter keying



Which of the following connections is made between a computer and a transceiver to use computer software when operating digital modes?

Computer “line in” to transceiver speaker connector



Which of the following conductors is preferred for bonding at RF?

Flat copper strap



How can you determine the length of time that equipment can be powered from a battery?

Divide the battery ampere-hour rating by the average current draw of the equipment



What function is performed with a transceiver and a digital mode hot spot?

Communication using digital voice or data systems via the internet



Where should the negative power return of a mobile transceiver be connected in a vehicle?

At the 12 volt battery chassis ground



What is an electronic keyer?

A device that assists in manual sending of Morse code





What is the effect of excessive microphone gain on SSB transmissions?

Distorted transmitted audio



Which of the following can be used to enter a transceiver’s operating frequency?

The keypad or VFO knob



How is squelch adjusted so that a weak FM signal can be heard?

Set the squelch threshold so that receiver output audio is on all the time



What is a way to enable quick access to a favorite frequency or channel on your transceiver?

Store it in a memory channel



What does the scanning function of an FM transceiver do?

Tunes through a range of frequencies to check for activity



Which of the following controls could be used if the voice pitch of a single-sideband signal returning to your CQ call seems too high or low?

The RIT or Clarifier



What does a DMR “code plug” contain?

Access information for repeaters and talkgroups



What is the advantage of having multiple receive bandwidth choices on a multimode transceiver?

Permits noise or interference reduction by selecting a bandwidth matching the mode



How is a specific group of stations selected on a digital voice transceiver?

By entering the group’s identification code



Which of the following receiver filter bandwidths provides the best signal-to-noise ratio for SSB reception?

2400 Hz



Which of the following must be programmed into a D-STAR digital transceiver before transmitting?

Your call sign



What is the result of tuning an FM receiver above or below a signal’s frequency?

Distortion of the signal’s audio







Electrical current is measured in which of the following units?

Amperes

Electrical power is measured in which of the following units?

Watts



What is the name for the flow of electrons in an electric circuit?

Current



What are the units of electrical resistance?

Ohms



What is the electrical term for the force that causes electron flow?

Voltage



What is the unit of frequency?

Hertz



Why are metals generally good conductors of electricity?

They have many free electrons



Which of the following is a good electrical insulator?

Glass



Which of the following describes alternating current?

Current that alternates between positive and negative directions



Which term describes the rate at which electrical energy is used?

Power



What type of current flow is opposed by resistance?

A. Direct current

B. Alternating current

C. RF current

D. All these choices are correct



What describes the number of times per second that an alternating current makes a complete cycle?

Frequency





How many milliamperes is 1.5 amperes?

1500 milliamperes



Which is equal to 1,500,000 hertz?

A. 1500 kHz



Which is equal to one kilovolt?

One thousand volts



Which is equal to one microvolt?

One one-millionth of a volt



Which is equal to 500 milliwatts?

0.5 watts



Which is equal to 3000 milliamperes?

3 amperes



Which is equal to 3.525 MHz?

3525 kHz



Which is equal to 1,000,000 picofarads?

1 microfarad



Which decibel value most closely represents a power increase from 5 watts to 10 watts?

3 dB



Which decibel value most closely represents a power decrease from 12 watts to 3 watts?

-6 dB



Which decibel value represents a power increase from 20 watts to 200 watts?

10 dB



Which is equal to 28400 kHz?

28.400 MHz



Which is equal to 2425 MHz?

2.425 GHz



What describes the ability to store energy in an electric field?

Capacitance



What is the unit of capacitance?

The farad



What describes the ability to store energy in a magnetic field?

Inductance



What is the unit of inductance?

The henry



T5C05 (D)

What is the unit of impedance?

The ohm





What does the abbreviation “RF” mean?

Radio frequency signals of all types



What is the abbreviation for megahertz?

MHz



What is the formula used to calculate electrical power (P) in a DC circuit?

P = I ´ E



How much power is delivered by a voltage of 13.8 volts DC and a current of 10 amperes?

138 watts



How much power is delivered by a voltage of 12 volts DC and a current of 2.5 amperes?

30 watts



How much current is required to deliver 120 watts at a voltage of 12 volts DC?

10 amperes





What is impedance?

The opposition to AC current flow



T5C13 (D)

What is the abbreviation for kilohertz?

kHz





What formula is used to calculate current in a circuit?

I = E / R



What formula is used to calculate voltage in a circuit?

E = I x R



T5D03 (B)

What formula is used to calculate resistance in a circuit?

R = E / I



What is the resistance of a circuit in which a current of 3 amperes flows when connected to 90 volts?

30 ohms



What is the resistance of a circuit for which the applied voltage is 12 volts and the current flow is 1.5 amperes?

8 ohms



What is the resistance of a circuit that draws 4 amperes from a 12-volt source?

3 ohms



What is the current in a circuit with an applied voltage of 120 volts and a resistance of 80 ohms?

1.5 amperes



What is the current through a 100-ohm resistor connected across 200 volts?

2 amperes



What is the current through a 24-ohm resistor connected across 240 volts?

10 amperes



What is the voltage across a 2-ohm resistor if a current of 0.5 amperes flows through it?

1 volt



What is the voltage across a 10-ohm resistor if a current of 1 ampere flows through it?

10 volts



What is the voltage across a 10-ohm resistor if a current of 2 amperes flows through it?

20 volts



In which type of circuit is DC current the same through all components?

Series



In which type of circuit is voltage the same across all components?

Parallel





What electrical component opposes the flow of current in a DC circuit?

Resistor



What type of component is often used as an adjustable volume control?

Potentiometer



What electrical parameter is controlled by a potentiometer?

Resistance



What electrical component stores energy in an electric field?

Capacitor



What type of electrical component consists of conductive surfaces separated by an insulator?

Capacitor



What type of electrical component stores energy in a magnetic field?

Inductor



What electrical component is typically constructed as a coil of wire?

Inductor



What is the function of an SPDT switch?

A single circuit is switched between one of two other circuits



What electrical component is used to protect other circuit components from current overloads?

Fuse






Which of the following battery chemistries is rechargeable?

A. Nickel-metal hydride

B. Lithium-ion

C. Lead-acid

D. All these choices are correct



Which of the following battery chemistries is not rechargeable?

Carbon-zinc



What type of switch is represented by component 3 in figure T-2?

Single-pole single-throw



Which is true about forward voltage drop in a diode?



What electronic component allows current to flow in only one direction?

Diode



Which of these components can be used as an electronic switch?

Transistor



Which of the following components can consist of three regions of semiconductor material?

Transistor



What type of transistor has a gate, drain, and source?

Field-effect



How is the cathode lead of a semiconductor diode often marked on the package?

With a stripe



What causes a light-emitting diode (LED) to emit light?

Forward current



What does the abbreviation FET stand for?

Field Effect Transistor



What are the names for the electrodes of a diode?

Anode and cathode



Which of the following can provide power gain?

Transistor



What is the term that describes a device's ability to amplify a signal?

Gain





What are the names of the electrodes of a bipolar junction transistor?

Emitter, base, collector





What is the name of an electrical wiring diagram that uses standard component symbols?

Schematic



What is component 1 in figure T-1?

Resistor



What is component 2 in figure T-1?

Transistor





What is component 3 in figure T-1?

Lamp



What is component 4 in figure T-1?

Battery



What is component 6 in figure T-2?

Capacitor



What is component 8 in figure T-2?

Light emitting diode



What is component 9 in figure T-2?

Variable resistor



What is component 4 in figure T-2?

Transformer



What is component 3 in figure T-3?

Variable inductor



What is component 4 in figure T-3?

Antenna



Which of the following is accurately represented in electrical schematics?

Component connections





Which of the following devices or circuits changes an alternating current into a varying direct current signal?

Rectifier



What is a relay?

An electrically-controlled switch



Which of the following is a reason to use shielded wire?

To prevent coupling of unwanted signals to or from the wire

Which of the following displays an electrical quantity as a numeric value?

Meter



What type of circuit controls the amount of voltage from a power supply?

Regulator



What component changes 120 V AC power to a lower AC voltage for other uses?

Transformer



Which of the following is commonly used as a visual indicator?

LED



Which of the following is combined with an inductor to make a resonant circuit?

Capacitor



What is the name of a device that combines several semiconductors and other components into one package?

Integrated circuit





What is the function of component 2 in figure T-1?

Control the flow of current





Which of the following is a resonant or tuned circuit?

An inductor and a capacitor in series or parallel







Which term describes the ability of a receiver to detect the presence of a signal?

Sensitivity



What is a transceiver?

A device that combines a receiver and transmitter



Which of the following is used to convert a signal from one frequency to another?

Mixer



Which term describes the ability of a receiver to discriminate between multiple signals?

Selectivity





What is the name of a circuit that generates a signal at a specific frequency?

Oscillator



What device converts the RF input and output of a transceiver to another band?

Transverter




What is the function of a transceiver’s PTT input?

Switches transceiver from receive to transmit when grounded



Which of the following describes combining speech with an RF carrier signal?

Modulation



What is the function of the SSB/CW-FM switch on a VHF power amplifier?

Set the amplifier for proper operation in the selected mode



What device increases the transmitted output power from a transceiver?

An RF power amplifier



Where is an RF preamplifier installed?

Between the antenna and receiver





What can you do if you are told your FM handheld or mobile transceiver is over-deviating?

Talk farther away from the microphone



What would cause a broadcast AM or FM radio to receive an amateur radio transmission unintentionally?

The receiver is unable to reject strong signals outside the AM or FM band



Which of the following can cause radio frequency interference?

A. Fundamental overload

B. Harmonics

C. Spurious emissions

D. All these choices are correct



Which of the following could you use to cure distorted audio caused by RF current on the shield of a microphone cable?

Ferrite choke



How can fundamental overload of a non-amateur radio or TV receiver by an amateur signal be reduced or eliminated?

Block the amateur signal with a filter at the antenna input of the affected receiver



Which of the following actions should you take if a neighbor tells you that your station’s transmissions are interfering with their radio or TV reception?

Make sure that your station is functioning properly and that it does not cause interference to your own radio or television when it is tuned to the same channel.



Which of the following can reduce overload of a VHF transceiver by a nearby commercial FM station?

Installing a band-reject filter








What should you do if something in a neighbor’s home is causing harmful interference to your amateur station?

A. Work with your neighbor to identify the offending device

B. Politely inform your neighbor that FCC rules prohibit the use of devices that cause interference

C. Make sure your station meets the standards of good amateur practice

D. All these choices are correct



What should be the first step to resolve non-fiber optic cable TV interference caused by your amateur radio transmission?

Be sure all TV feed line coaxial connectors are installed properly



What might be a problem if you receive a report that your audio signal through an FM repeater is distorted or unintelligible?

A. Your transmitter is slightly off frequency

B. Your batteries are running low

C. You are in a bad location

D. All these choices are correct



What is a symptom of RF feedback in a transmitter or transceiver?

Reports of garbled, distorted, or unintelligible voice transmissions





What is the primary purpose of a dummy load?

To prevent transmitting signals over the air when making tests



Which of the following is used to determine if an antenna is resonant at the desired operating frequency?

An antenna analyzer



What does a dummy load consist of?

A non-inductive resistor mounted on a heat sink



What reading on an SWR meter indicates a perfect impedance match between the antenna and the feed line?

1:1



Why do most solid-state transmitters reduce output power as SWR increases beyond a certain level?

To protect the output amplifier transistors





What does an SWR reading of 4:1 indicate?

Impedance mismatch



What happens to power lost in a feed line?

It is converted into heat



Which instrument can be used to determine SWR?

Directional wattmeter



Which of the following causes failure of coaxial cables?

Moisture contamination



Why should the outer jacket of coaxial cable be resistant to ultraviolet light?

Ultraviolet light can damage the jacket and allow water to enter the cable



What is a disadvantage of air core coaxial cable when compared to foam or solid dielectric types?

It requires special techniques to prevent moisture in the cable





Which instrument would you use to measure electric potential?

A voltmeter



How is a voltmeter connected to a component to measure applied voltage?

In parallel



When configured to measure current, how is a multimeter connected to a component?

In series



Which instrument is used to measure electric current?

An ammeter





Which of the following can damage a multimeter?

Attempting to measure voltage when using the resistance setting



Which of the following measurements are made using a multimeter?

Voltage and resistance



Which of the following types of solder should not be used for radio and electronic applications?

Acid-core solder



What is the characteristic appearance of a cold tin-lead solder joint?

A rough or lumpy surface



What reading indicates that an ohmmeter is connected across a large, discharged capacitor?

Increasing resistance with time



Which of the following precautions should be taken when measuring in-circuit resistance with an ohmmeter?

Ensure that the circuit is not powered





Which of the following is a form of amplitude modulation?

Single sideband



What type of modulation is commonly used for VHF packet radio transmissions?

FM or PM



Which type of voice mode is often used for long-distance (weak signal) contacts on the VHF and UHF bands?

SSB



Which type of modulation is commonly used for VHF and UHF voice repeaters?

FM or PM



Which of the following types of signal has the narrowest bandwidth?

CW



Which sideband is normally used for 10 meter HF, VHF, and UHF single-sideband communications?

Upper sideband



What is a characteristic of single sideband (SSB) compared to FM?

SSB signals have narrower bandwidth



What is the approximate bandwidth of a typical single sideband (SSB) voice signal?

3 kHz



What is the approximate bandwidth of a VHF repeater FM voice signal?

Between 10 and 15 kHz





What is the approximate bandwidth of AM fast-scan TV transmissions?

About 6 MHz



What is the approximate bandwidth required to transmit a CW signal?

150 Hz



Which of the following is a disadvantage of FM compared with single sideband?

Only one signal can be received at a time





What telemetry information is typically transmitted by satellite beacons?

Health and status of the satellite



What is the impact of using excessive effective radiated power on a satellite uplink?

Blocking access by other users



Which of the following are provided by satellite tracking programs?

A. Maps showing the real-time position of the satellite track over Earth

B. The time, azimuth, and elevation of the start, maximum altitude, and end of a pass

C. The apparent frequency of the satellite transmission, including effects of Doppler shift

D. All these choices are correct





What mode of transmission is commonly used by amateur radio satellites?

A. SSB

B. FM

C. CW/data

D. All these choices are correct



What is a satellite beacon?

A transmission from a satellite that contains status information



Which of the following are inputs to a satellite tracking program?

The Keplerian elements



What is Doppler shift in reference to satellite communications?

An observed change in signal frequency caused by relative motion between the satellite and Earth station



What is meant by the statement that a satellite is operating in U/V mode?

The satellite uplink is in the 70 centimeter band and the downlink is in the 2 meter band



What causes spin fading of satellite signals?

Rotation of the satellite and its antennas



What is a LEO satellite?

A satellite in low earth orbit



Who may receive telemetry from a space station?

Anyone



Which of the following is a way to determine whether your satellite uplink power is neither too low nor too high?

Your signal strength on the downlink should be about the same as the beacon





Which of the following methods is used to locate sources of noise interference or jamming?

Radio direction finding



Which of these items would be useful for a hidden transmitter hunt?

A directional antenna



What operating activity involves contacting as many stations as possible during a specified period?

Contesting



Which of the following is good procedure when contacting another station in a contest?

Send only the minimum information needed for proper identification and the contest exchange



What is a grid locator?

A letter-number designator assigned to a geographic location




How is over the air access to IRLP nodes accomplished?

By using DTMF signals



What is Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP)?

A method of delivering voice communications over the internet using digital techniques



What is the Internet Radio Linking Project (IRLP)?

A technique to connect amateur radio systems, such as repeaters, via the internet using Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP)



Which of the following protocols enables an amateur station to transmit through a repeater without using a radio to initiate the transmission?

EchoLink



What is required before using the EchoLink system?

Register your call sign and provide proof of license



What is an amateur radio station that connects other amateur stations to the internet?

A gateway





Which of the following is a digital communications mode?

A. Packet radio

B. IEEE 802.11

C. FT8

D. All these choices are correct



What is a “talkgroup” on a DMR repeater?

A way for groups of users to share a channel at different times without hearing other users on the channel



What kind of data can be transmitted by APRS?

A. GPS position data

B. Text messages

C. Weather data

D. All these choices are correct



What type of transmission is indicated by the term "NTSC?"

An analog fast-scan color TV signal





Which of the following is an application of APRS?

Providing real-time tactical digital communications in conjunction with a map showing the locations of stations



What does the abbreviation "PSK" mean?

Phase Shift Keying



Which of the following describes DMR?

A technique for time-multiplexing two digital voice signals on a single 12.5 kHz repeater channel


Which of the following is included in packet radio transmissions?

A. A check sum that permits error detection

B. A header that contains the call sign of the station to which the information is being sent

C. Automatic repeat request in case of error

D. All these choices are correct



What is CW?

Another name for a Morse code transmission





Which of the following operating activities is supported by digital mode software in the WSJT-X software suite?

A. Earth-Moon-Earth

B. Weak signal propagation beacons

C. Meteor scatter

D. All these choices are correct



What is an ARQ transmission system?

An error correction method in which the receiving station detects errors and sends a request for retransmission



Which of the following best describes an amateur radio mesh network?

An amateur-radio based data network using commercial Wi-Fi equipment with modified firmware





What is FT8?

A digital mode capable of low signal-to-noise operation





What is a beam antenna?

An antenna that concentrates signals in one direction



Which of the following describes a type of antenna loading?

Electrically lengthening by inserting inductors in radiating elements



Which of the following describes a simple dipole oriented parallel to Earth's surface?

A horizontally polarized antenna



What is a disadvantage of the short, flexible antenna supplied with most handheld radio transceivers, compared to a full-sized quarter-wave antenna?

It has low efficiency



Which of the following increases the resonant frequency of a dipole antenna?

Shortening it



Which of the following types of antenna offers the greatest gain?

Yagi




What is a disadvantage of using a handheld VHF transceiver with a flexible antenna inside a vehicle?

Signal strength is reduced due to the shielding effect of the vehicle



What is the approximate length, in inches, of a quarter-wavelength vertical antenna for 146 MHz?

19



What is the approximate length, in inches, of a half-wavelength 6 meter dipole antenna?

112



In which direction does a half-wave dipole antenna radiate the strongest signal?

Broadside to the antenna



What is antenna gain?

The increase in signal strength in a specified direction compared to a reference antenna



What is an advantage of a 5/8 wavelength whip antenna for VHF or UHF mobile service?

It has more gain than a 1/4-wavelength antenna





What is a benefit of low SWR?

Reduced signal loss



What is the most common impedance of coaxial cables used in amateur radio?

50 ohms



Why is coaxial cable the most common feed line for amateur radio antenna systems?

It is easy to use and requires few special installation considerations



What is the major function of an antenna tuner (antenna coupler)?

It matches the antenna system impedance to the transceiver's output impedance



What happens as the frequency of a signal in coaxial cable is increased?

The loss increases



Which of the following RF connector types is most suitable for frequencies above 400 MHz?

Type N



Which of the following is true of PL-259 type coax connectors?

They are commonly used at HF and VHF frequencies



Which of the following is a source of loss in coaxial feed line?

A. Water intrusion into coaxial connectors

B. High SWR

C. Multiple connectors in the line

D. All these choices are correct





What can cause erratic changes in SWR?

Loose connection in the antenna or feed line



What is the electrical difference between RG-58 and RG-213 coaxial cable?

RG-213 cable has less loss at a given frequency



Which of the following types of feed line has the lowest loss at VHF and UHF?

Air-insulated hardline



What is standing wave ratio (SWR)?

A measure of how well a load is matched to a transmission line





Which of the following is a safety hazard of a 12-volt storage battery?

Shorting the terminals can cause burns, fire, or an explosion



What health hazard is presented by electrical current flowing through the body?

A. It may cause injury by heating tissue

B. It may disrupt the electrical functions of cells

C. It may cause involuntary muscle contractions

D. All these choices are correct



In the United States, what circuit does black wire insulation indicate in a three-wire 120 V cable?

Hot



What is the purpose of a fuse in an electrical circuit?

To remove power in case of overload



Why should a 5-ampere fuse never be replaced with a 20-ampere fuse?

Excessive current could cause a fire



What is a good way to guard against electrical shock at your station?

A. Use three-wire cords and plugs for all AC powered equipment

B. Connect all AC powered station equipment to a common safety ground

C. Install mechanical interlocks in high-voltage circuits

D. All these choices are correct



Where should a lightning arrester be installed in a coaxial feed line?

On a grounded panel near where feed lines enter the building



Where should a fuse or circuit breaker be installed in a 120V AC power circuit?

In series with the hot conductor only



What should be done to all external ground rods or earth connections?

Bond them together with heavy wire or conductive strap






What hazard is caused by charging or discharging a battery too quickly?

Overheating or out-gassing



What hazard exists in a power supply immediately after turning it off?

Charge stored in filter capacitors



Which of the following precautions should be taken when measuring high voltages with a voltmeter?

Ensure that the voltmeter and leads are rated for use at the voltages to be measured





Which of the following is good practice when installing ground wires on a tower for lightning protection?

Ensure that connections are short and direct



What is required when climbing an antenna tower?

A. Have sufficient training on safe tower climbing techniques

B. Use appropriate tie-off to the tower at all times

C. Always wear an approved climbing harness

D. All these choices are correct



Under what circumstances is it safe to climb a tower without a helper or observer?

Never



Which of the following is an important safety precaution to observe when putting up an antenna tower?

Look for and stay clear of any overhead electrical wires



What is the purpose of a safety wire through a turnbuckle used to tension guy lines?

Prevent loosening of the turnbuckle from vibration



What is the minimum safe distance from a power line to allow when installing an antenna?

Enough so that if the antenna falls, no part of it can come closer than 10 feet to the power wires



Which of the following is an important safety rule to remember when using a crank-up tower?

This type of tower must not be climbed unless it is retracted, or mechanical safety locking devices have been installed



Which is a proper grounding method for a tower?

Separate eight-foot ground rods for each tower leg, bonded to the tower and each other



Why should you avoid attaching an antenna to a utility pole?

The antenna could contact high-voltage power lines



Which of the following is true when installing grounding conductors used for lightning protection?

Sharp bends must be avoided



Which of the following establishes grounding requirements for an amateur radio tower or antenna?

Local electrical codes




What type of radiation are radio signals?

Non-ionizing radiation



At which of the following frequencies does maximum permissible exposure have the lowest value?

50 MHz



How does the allowable power density for RF safety change if duty cycle changes from 100 percent to 50 percent?

It increases by a factor of 2



What factors affect the RF exposure of people near an amateur station antenna?

A. Frequency and power level of the RF field

B. Distance from the antenna to a person

C. Radiation pattern of the antenna

D. All these choices are correct



Why do exposure limits vary with frequency?

The human body absorbs more RF energy at some frequencies than at others



Which of the following is an acceptable method to determine whether your station complies with FCC RF exposure regulations?

A. By calculation based on FCC OET Bulletin 65

B. By calculation based on computer modeling

C. By measurement of field strength using calibrated equipment

D. All these choices are correct



What hazard is created by touching an antenna during a transmission?

RF burn to skin



Which of the following actions can reduce exposure to RF radiation?

Relocate antennas



How can you make sure your station stays in compliance with RF safety regulations?

By re-evaluating the station whenever an item in the transmitter or antenna system is changed



Why is duty cycle one of the factors used to determine safe RF radiation exposure levels?

It affects the average exposure to radiation





What is the definition of duty cycle during the averaging time for RF exposure?

The percentage of time that a transmitter is transmitting



How does RF radiation differ from ionizing radiation (radioactivity)?

RF radiation does not have sufficient energy to cause chemical changes in cells and damage DNA



Who is responsible for ensuring that no person is exposed to RF energy above the FCC exposure limits?

The station licensee





NOTE: The 3 graphics required for certain questions in sections T6C and T6D are included on the following pages.



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Gullwing

Former Padawan Apprentice Now Master
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#2
Looks at title "Nyeco is optimistic that we will all live as long as he will".
Opens thread, "No that is just how long it will take to read it".
 

NYECOGunsmith

WILL BAN FOR AAA Batteries
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#3
I think it's 404 questions, at the rate my former apprentice reads, should keep him out of mischief until the dinosaurs once again roam the earth!